Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

Summary: The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights to all American citizens, regardless of sex. It seeks to end the legal distinctions between women and men in matters of employment, divorce, property, etc. It was first introduced into Congress in 1923 by two Kansans- Senator Charles Curtis and Representative Daniel R. Anthony, Jr. The ERA was put forth to Congress every year thereafter, but was not passed by both the House and Senate until 1972. However, the amendment was never adopted because only 30 of the required 38 states ratified it by 1979. As of 2019, 37 states have ratified the amendment and there continues to be discussion about equal treatment. 

Date Range: 1970-1991

Online materials: Pamphlets and publications from the National Organization for Women, a speech by Senator Dole, correspondence, Congressional Research Service (CRS) materials, congressional memos and information sheets

Additional materials: Letters from constituents both for and against the passage of the ERA, speeches and other documents demonstrating Senator Dole's support for the ERA, and several Civil Rights documents that pertain to gender rights

 

Title: ERA for Women in Sports

Date: c. 1980s

Citation: Dole Photograph Collection, 1880-1996, Places and Events, Box 50, Folder 2920, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Poverty: A Women's Issue. Pamphlet by the National Organization for Women.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: NOW Origins: A summary description of how 28 women changed the world by reviving a revolution everyone thought was dead.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: ERA Yes. A pamphlet by the National Organization for Women.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: ERA Boycott Campaign: Put your money where your rights are. A pamphlet by the National Organization for Women.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: The Equal Rights Amendment: It's Our Future. A pamphlet by the National Organization for Women.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: The need for the Equal Rights Amendment. A fact sheet by the National Organization for Women.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: No Retreat From Equality. A pamphlet by the National Organization for Women.

Date: Undated

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Correspondence: Support for the passage of H.J. Res. 264 without Amendment (ERA).

Date: 1970

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 200, Folder 10, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Correspondence: Support/dissent letters over H.J. Res. 264 (ERA).

Date: 1970

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 200, Folder 11, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Correspondence: Letter in opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment from a wife and mother.

Date: 1970

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 200, Folder 12, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Correspondence: KU Commission on the Status of Women.

Date: 1970

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 200, Folder 13, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Correspondence: Opposition, concerns, and requests for information regarding the Equal Rights Amendment

Date: 1974

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 256, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Correspondence: Opposition letters and petitions to rescind the Equal Right Amendment

Date: 1975

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 256, Folder 2, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Senator Dole's position on the Equal Rights Amendment in a speech draft.

Date: 1978

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 622, Folder 7, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Issue briefing on the background of the Equal Rights Amendment, Congressional Research Service (CRS).

Date: 1978

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 622, Folder 7, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Memo prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) concerning ERA and proposed extension of ratification.

Date: 1978-06-29

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 622, Folder 7, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Congressional Research Service (CRS) booklet "The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment"

Date: 1978-06-29

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 622, Folder 7, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Statement on the Equal Rights Amendment (pamphlet) by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

Date: 1978-12-01

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Pamphlet in favor of the ERA, sponsored by the Minority Women's Committee of the National Organization for Women.

Date: 1979-8

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 1, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: "A Statistical Portrait of Women in the United States: 1978" report from the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Census Bureau

Date: 1978

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 161, Folder 10, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Legislative Notice re: S. 563 (NSF and Women in Science) from the US Senate Republican Policy Committee

Date: 1980

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 2, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: The 1980 Virginia Slims American Women's Opinion Poll

Date: 1981

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 3, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Women's issues lobbying materials - includes "A women's needs agenda for the 97th Congress" and Title IX National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs excerpt

Date: 1981

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 5, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Durenberger-Packwood_Hatfield Economic Equity Act of 1981 (Women's Equality Act of 1981)

Date: 1981

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 162, Folder 4, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: "Title IX - 10 Years of Good News" report from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education

Date: 1982

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 172, Folder 15, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Assorted correspondence, newsclippings, reports, etc. regarding women's rights and legislation

Date: 1983

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 768, Folder 5, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Food & Nutrition Magazine "WIC Celebrates Its Tenth Anniversary" and associated legislative memos

Date: 1984

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Legislative Relations, 1969-1996, Box 161, Folder 8, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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Title: Women's Equal Opportunity Act of 1991 ("Glass Ceiling Bill") and associated legislative materials.

Date: 1991

Citation: Robert J. Dole Senate Papers-Constituent Relations, 1969-1996, Box 639, Folder 21, Robert and Elizabeth Dole Archive and Special Collections, University of Kansas

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